The Bible likens the Jewish people to the Children of G-d and refers to them with many terms of affection.
The Jewish people are gifted with 613 commandments. They have two Torahs, written and oral. By collectively accepting the Torah they publicly assume the responsibility of bringing the world to perfection by deeds, worship, and study.
Together with this awesome responsibility, G-d assures them He will do whatever is needed so that they will ultimately succeed.
As stated previously, by establishing the Jewish people G-d again reduces risk. Mankind is its entirety is no longer on the critical path. This provides the rest of Mankind with a new means of relating to the will of G-d. It also provides a new way of fulfilling it. By merely caring for the physical environment that enables the Jewish people to observe the commandments, the rest of Mankind has a share in their ultimate success. Mankind can also elect to take a more active role by supporting the effort or by joining it.
This approach also provides a new way to get people into (big) trouble if they intentionally frustrate this plan. Anti-Semitism takes on a new meaning, as it can viewed as an attack on G-d's will.
G-d leaves membership to the Jewish people open to anyone, regardless of race, color, or national origin. G-d does not require Non-Jews to become Jewish; Judaism does not seek converts. Non-Jews can get to Heaven and they will be rewarded as Non-Jews according to their responsibilities and behavior.
Non-Jews are still responsible to keep their Seven Commandments. Their basis now becomes that which was transmitted to Moses from G-d on Mt. Sinai, not that which was commanded directly to Noah.
Incidentally, a person is Jewish either by birth, being born to a Jewish mother, or by going through the process of conversion as prescribed by the Oral Torah.
Once a person is Jewish, he/she never loses this status. Jews are responsible for keeping the Oral and Written Torahs in their entirety, not just the Seven Commandments.
Commentaries on Oral Torah associate the ordeals of Avraham (Abraham) with the vow that G-d took after the Great Flood to never again destroy the world.
Had there been no Avraham and had the Torah not been accepted by the Jewish nation, then the world would have returned to the state it was in prior to Creation. Thus, not only does G-d choose the Jewish people. He also chooses to accept this world and everything that it contains.
The link between Avraham and Noah is now complete. The link between the Jewish people and the rest of Mankind is also complete.
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